Study Participation

Overall, 14,927 households were selected for participation in the pre-cohort survey. Among them, 12,603 households participated, resulting in a household response rate of 94.4% [Table 1]. Household response rates did not differ substantially between urban (94.3%) and rural residence (94.4%). A total of 13,508 eligible women and 10,976 eligible men were identified among the participating households. Over four-fifths (81.7%) of eligible women and two-thirds (65.0%) of eligible men agreed to participate in the survey. Urban areas had higher participation rate for women and men [Table 1].

Table 1. Household and Individual Response Rates for Pre-cohort Survey, Ages 18-49


Residence

Urban Rural Total

Household interviews

Households selected 4215 10712 14927
Households occupied 3739 9613 13352
Households/no contact made 476 1099 1575
Households interviewed 3527 9076 12603
Household response rate1 (%) 94.3% 94.4% 94.4%

Men and women age 18-49

Men Women Men Women Men Women
Number of eligible 3008 3743 7968 9765 10976 13508
Number of eligible interviewed 2065 3194 5064 7846 7129 11040
Eligible response rate2 (%) 68.7% 85.3% 63.6% 80.3% 65.0% 81.7%

A total of 24,484 men and women were eligible for the pre-cohort survey [Table 2]. Three-quarters (74.2%) of eligible persons agreed to participate. Differences in the age distribution of participants and non-participants were minimal. Differences were also few by urban/rural residence and region. Men, however, were more likely to refuse study participation; 60.9% of eligible men did not participate in the pre-cohort survey, compared to 39.1% of eligible women.

1 Household response rate = Households interviewed/households occupied x 100

2 Eligible women (or men) response rate = Number of eligible women (or men) interviewed/number of eligible women (or men) x 100

Table 2. Comparison of Characteristics of-SHIMS and Non-SHIMS Participants in Pre-cohort Survey, Ages 18-49


Non-SHIMS
participants
SHIMS
participants
Total

Total

6315/24484
(25.8%)
18169/24484
(74.2%)
24484/24484
(100.0%)
N=6315 N=18169 N=24484

Age

18-19 647 (10.2%) 2216 (12.2%) 2863 (11.7%)
20-24 1495 (23.7%) 4795 (26.4%) 6290 (25.7%)
25-29 1369 (21.7%) 3657 (20.1%) 5026 (20.5%)
30-34 1001 (15.9%) 2575 (14.2%) 3576 (14.6%)
35-39 784 (12.4%) 1874 (10.3%) 2658 (10.9%)
40-44 607 (9.6%) 1622 (8.9%) 2229 (9.1%)
45-49 412 (6.5%) 1430 (7.9%) 1842 (7.5%)

Gender

Male 3847 (60.9%) 7129 (39.2%) 10976 (44.8%)
Female 2468 (39.1%) 11040 (60.8%) 13508 (55.2%)

Residence

Urban 1492 (23.6%) 5259 (28.9%) 6751 (27.6%)
Rural 4823 (76.4%) 12910 (71.1%) 17733 (72.4%)

Region

Hhohho 1741 (27.6%) 5293 (29.1%) 7034 (28.7%)
Manzini 1802 (28.5%) 5226 (28.8%) 7028 (28.7%)
Shiselweni 1415 (22.4%) 3616 (19.9%) 5031 (20.5%)
Lubombo 1357 (21.5%) 4034 (22.2%) 5391 (22.0%)

Table 3. Weighted Characteristics of Participants in Pre-cohort Survey, Ages 18-49

Total Women Men

Total

18169/18169
(100%)
9842/18169
(54.2%)
8327/18169
(45.8%)
N=18169 N=9842 N=8327

Age

18-19 1987 (10.9%) 989 (10.1%) 997 (12%)
20-24 4582 (25.2%) 2488 (25.3%) 2093 (25.1%)
25-29 3604 (19.8%) 1925 (19.6%) 1679 (20.2%)
30-34 2628 (14.5%) 1361 (13.8%) 1267 (15.2%)
35-39 2202 (12.1%) 1208 (12.3%) 993 (11.9%)
40-44 1702 (9.4%) 976 (9.9%) 726 (8.7%)
45-49 1464 (8.1%) 893 (9.1%) 571 (6.9%)

Residence

Urban 5424 (29.9%) 2967 (30.1%) 2457 (29.5%)
Rural 12745 (70.1%) 6875 (69.9%) 5870 (70.5%)

Region

Hhohho 5182 (28.5%) 2796 (28.4%) 2387 (28.7%)
Manzini 6090 (33.5%) 3347 (34%) 2743 (32.9%)
Shiselweni 3333 (18.3%) 1856 (18.9%) 1477 (17.7%)
Lubombo 3564 (19.6%) 1843 (18.7%) 1721 (20.7%)

Education3

Did not attend 1174 (6.5%) 634 (6.4%) 540 (6.5%)
Primary 5246 (28.9%) 2911 (29.6%) 2335 (28%)
Secondary 9064 (49.9%) 4999 (50.8%) 4065 (48.8%)
Tertiary 2603 (14.3%) 1253 (12.7%) 1349 (16.2%)

Current marital status4

Not married, ever had sex 7808 (43%) 4104 (41.7%) 3704 (44.5%)
Not married, never had sex 1875 (10.3%) 554 (5.6%) 1321 (15.9%)
Married, living with partner 4923 (27.1%) 2811 (28.6%) 2112 (25.4%)
Married, partner stays elsewhere5 2810 (15.5%) 1956 (19.9%) 854 (10.3%)
Married, unknown living situation 307 (1.7%) 250 (2.5%) 57 (0.7%)

Number of partners (past 6 months)6

0 4062 (22.4%) 1793 (18.2%) 2268 (27.2%)
1 12083 (66.5%) 7617 (77.4%) 4466 (53.6%)
2 or more 1884 (10.4%) 372 (3.8%) 1512 (18.2%)

Currently pregnant7

Yes 669 (6.8%)
No 8860 (90.0%)

Circumcision status8

Circumcised 1374 (16.5%)
Uncircumcised 6631 (79.6%)

3 Refers to highest level of education ever attended, whether or not that level was completed; # missing = 83(Total) : 45(Women) : 38(Men)

4 # missing = 448 (Total): 167(Women) : 280 (Men)

5 Among participants who are currently married or have regular partner

6 # missing = 141 (Total): 59 (Women) : 81 (Men)

7 # missing = 312 (Women)

8 Refers to male participants only; # missing = 323 (Men)

Table 3 provides the weighted distribution of individual participants by selected characteristics (including age, education, marital status and circumcision status). Appendix H provides a comparison of weighted versus unweighted distributions.

The distribution of SHIMS participants across age categories reflects a younger Swazi population, with 55.9% of men and women between 18-29 years of age. Over a quarter (28.9%) of participants stated having attended only primary school. Another half of participants (49.9%) attended secondary school, while 14.3% reported tertiary education. About seven percent (6.5%) of participants reported never attending school. Level of completed education was similar between men and women.

Current marital status was defined as including legal marriage and cohabitation. Half of respondents reported never being married (53.3%). Similar proportions of women and men were not married but had ever had sex (41.7% vs. 44.5%), however men more frequently reported not being married and never having sex (15.9% vs. 5.6%). Women more commonly reported being married with their partner staying elsewhere (19.9% vs. 10.3%) or married with an unknown living situation (2.5% vs. 0.7%).